生物中异养和自养的区别(异养和自养的区别细菌)

Themostimportantconceptrelatingtoecosystemsisthattheyareabiologicalcommunity,whichisself-regulating,wherelivingthingsinteract.Theirsizevariesenormouslyfromapondtoatropicalrainforest.At

The most important concept relating to ecosystems is that they are a biological community, which is self-regulating, where living things interact. Their size varies enormously from a pond to a tropical rainforest. At its largest scale, the entire globe is referred to as a global Ecosystem.

与生态系统有关的最重要的概念是,它们是一个生物群落,是自我调节的,生物在其中相互作用。从一个池塘到一个热带雨林,它们的规模有很大的不同。在其最大的规模上,整个地球被称为全球生态系统。

生物中异养和自养的区别(异养和自养的区别细菌)

Key terminology 关键术语

Central to ecosystems is the idea that links are in existence, and a balance (dynamic equilibrium) exists between inputs and outputs that enables an ecosystem to function effectively.

生态系统的中心思想是存在联系,输入和输出之间存在平衡(动态平衡),使生态系统能够有效运作。

The main links are between the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere.

主要的联系是在水圈生物圈、岩石圈和大气圈之间。

The biosphere is the living world, for example, any part of the earth and atmosphere that is able to support and maintain life; it includes oceans and lakes.

生物圈是有生命的世界,例如,地球和大气层中能够支持和维持生命的任何部分;它包括海洋和湖泊。

Ecosystems have two main elements 生态系统有两个主要元素:

Abiotic: Theses are non-living, such as air, water, heat, rock.

非生物性:这些都是非生物性的,如空气、水、热、岩石。

Biotic: These are living, such as plants, insects, and animals. They can be further sub-divided into autotrophs (producers) and heterotrophs (consumers) that include herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores, detritivores (decomposers).

生物的:这些是活的,如植物、昆虫和动物。它们可以进一步细分为自养动物(生产者)和异养动物(消费者),包括食草动物、食肉动物和杂食动物、腐食动物(分解者)。

All ecosystems have an organic community, which are living organisms,and an inorganic community, which are non-living environments, for example, chemical and physical.

所有的生态系统都有一个有机群落,即生物体,和一个无机群落,即非生物环境,例如,化学和物理。

Community: The entire variety of species that are found in an ecosystem.

群落:在一个生态系统中发现的所有种类的物种。

Population: individual members of a certain species that are found in an ecosystem.

种群:在一个生态系统中发现的某一物种的个体成员。

Below is a diagram showing a pond as an ecosystem 下面是一张显示池塘作为一个生态系统的图:

生物中异养和自养的区别(异养和自养的区别细菌)

Energy flow 能量流动

The sun is the source of all energy for all life on earth, and provides both heat and light energy. Despite this, it is kept by the biosphere for only a short time, before it is re-radiated back out to space. The initial process in energy flow is that of photosynthesis where light energy from the sun is trapped by green plants and turned into chemical energy, which can then be used for plant growth. Energy is then passed along through the ecosystem as food in a food chain or in a more complex food web.

太阳是地球上所有生命的能量之源,它提供热能和光能。尽管如此,它被生物圈保留的时间很短,然后又被重新辐射到太空。能量流动的最初过程是光合作用,来自太阳的光能被绿色植物捕获并转化为化学能,然后可用于植物生长。然后,能量通过生态系统作为食物在食物链或更复杂的食物网中传递。

生物中异养和自养的区别(异养和自养的区别细菌)

Trophic levels 营养层次

As energy is passed through an ecosystem several processes occur 当能量在一个生态系统中传递时,会发生几个过程:

  1. Energy passes through different trophic levels.
  2. The amount of energy there is decreases.
  3. Fewer species and Biomass exist at each level.

能量通过不同的营养级。

能量的数量减少了。

每个层次上存在的物种和生物量减少。

The diagram below that shows the idea of trophic levels in ecosystems and the process of energy loss 下图显示了生态系统中营养级的概念和能量损失的过程:

生物中异养和自养的区别(异养和自养的区别细菌)

The flow of energy decreases at each successive trophic level as does the amount of biomass and the number of organisms. The reasons for this are outlined in the section relating to ecosystem productivity.

能量流在每个连续的营养级上都会减少,生物量和生物体的数量也会减少。这方面的原因在与生态系统生产力有关的章节中有所概述。

Energy found within any plant and animal material is known as biomass, and it can be measured in a variety of ways 在任何植物和动物材料中发现的能量被称为生物量,它可以通过各种方式进行测量:

  1. Calories.
  2. Dry weight.
  3. Ash weight (weight after burning).

热量。

干重。

灰分重量(燃烧后的重量)。

The links within an ecosystem are known as trophic levels or energy levels. Each has its own particular characteristics, which are outlined in the table below 生态系统内的各个环节被称为营养级或能量级。每个层次都有自己的特定特征,如下表所示:

Trophic Level:

Producer / Consumer:

Name / Example:

Action:

Energy transfer:

Level 1

Producer.

生产者

Autotrophs (self feeders). For example, green plants.

自养生物(自养)。例如,绿色植物。

Plants are capable of producing all their own food.

植物能够自己生产所有食物。

Only one energy transfer, from sun to plants.

只有一种能量转移,从太阳到植物。

Level 2

Consumer.

消费者

Herbivores (primary consumers). For example, caterpillars.

草食动物(主要消费者)。例如,毛毛虫。

Eat the green plants (producers).

吃绿色植物(生产者)。

Two energy transfers have occurred.

发生了两次能量转移。

Level 3

Consumer.

消费者

Carnivore (secondary consumer). For example, blackbird.

食肉动物(二级消费者)。例如,黑鸟。

Meat eaters, feed upon the herbivores, fewer in number than primary consumers.

肉食者以草食动物为食,数量少于初级消费者。

Three energy transfers have occurred, more chance for energy to be lost via respiration, excreta.

发生了三种能量转移,更多的能量通过呼吸、排泄物流失。

Level 4

Consumer.

消费者

Omnivores (Deversivores). For example, hawks, humans.

杂食动物(Deversivores)。例如,鹰、人类。

Have two sources of food, because eat both plants and animals.

有两种食物来源,因为植物和动物都吃。

Four energy transfers.

四能量转移。

The transfer of energy is not 100% efficient, as energy is lost via respiration, dead organisms, decay, excreta, and heat given off. The result is that fewer organisms are supported at each level, but the individual size of each organism increases at each trophic level. The loss of energy through the trophic levels places a limit on the total mass of living matter (biomass) and organisms found at each level. Detritivores (bacteria and fungi, operate at all levels).

能量的转移不是100%有效的,因为能量会通过呼吸作用、死亡的生物体、腐烂、排泄物和散发的热量而损失。其结果是,在每个层次上支持的生物体较少,但每个生物体的个体大小在每个营养层次上都有所增加。通过营养级的能量损失对每个级别的生物物质(生物量)和生物体的总质量进行了限制。分解者(细菌和真菌,在所有层次上运作)。

生物中异养和自养的区别(异养和自养的区别细菌)

Nutrient cycle 养分循环

The model of the nutrient cycle was first developed in 1976, by P.F. Gersmehl, who attempted to show differences between ecosystem regards nutrients, transferred and stored between three areas. Plants take in those nutrients where they are built into new organic matter. Nutrients are taken up when animals eat plants and they returned to the soil when animals die and the body is broken down by decomposers.

养分循环模型是在1976年由P.F. Gersmehl首次提出的,他试图显示生态系统之间的差异,养分在三个区域之间转移和储存。植物吸收这些养分,在那里它们被构建成新的有机物。当动物吃植物时,营养物质被吸收,当动物死亡,身体被分解者分解时,营养物质被送回土壤。

In all nutrient cycles there are interactions between the atmosphere and soil and many food chains are involved. Nutrient cycles vary greatly between ecosystems, as the rate of nutrient transfer is dependent on the amount of moisture, heat, vegetation and the length of the growing season. The diagrams below show the model of nutrient cycling, and the variation between different nutrient cycles within the Taiga, Steppe and Equatorial Rain Forest.

在所有的养分循环中,大气和土壤之间存在相互作用,并且涉及许多食物链。养分循环在不同的生态系统中差异很大,因为养分转移的速度取决于水分、热量、植被和生长季节的长度。下图显示了养分循环的模型,以及泰加、草原和赤道雨林内不同养分循环之间的变化。

litter: This is the surface layer of vegetation, which over time breaks down to become humus.

废弃物:这是植被的表层,随着时间的推移,会分解成腐殖质。

Biomass: The total mass of living organisms per unit area.

生物量:每单位面积上的生物体的总质量。

In each of the three diagrams the amount of nutrients transferred are shown by the width of each arrow, and the amount of nutrients stored in the soil, litter, or biomass is indicated by the size of the circle.

在这三张图中,每个箭头的宽度显示了营养物质的转移量,圆圈的大小显示了储存在土壤、垃圾或生物质中的营养物质的数量。

Reasons for differences between nutrient cycles 营养周期不同的原因:

Ecosystem 生态环境:

Characteristics 特征:

Taiga

大河

Litter = the largest store, due to the slow decomposition of needle like leaves from coniferous trees. Biomass is low as a result of little undergrowth and few species of plant. Few nutrients are found in the soil, as rates of leaching are high, and the breakdown of rock is extremely slow due to low temperatures.

废弃物=最大的储存量,由于针叶树的针状叶子分解缓慢。生物量很低,因为灌木丛少,植物种类少。在土壤中发现的营养物质很少,因为沥滤率很高,而且由于温度低,岩石的分解极其缓慢。

Steppe

草原

Biomass is small due to limited moisture, and low temperatures that limit the growing season to 6 months. Many nutrients are kept in the soil as a lack of rainfall means little leaching takes place. Nutrient transfer from biomass to litter is high as the grass dies back in winter.

由于水分有限,而且温度低,生长季节限制在6个月内,所以生物量很小。由于缺乏降雨,许多营养物质被保存在土壤中,这意味着很少发生沥滤。由于草在冬季枯萎,养分从生物质转移到垃圾中的程度很高。

Tropical Rainforest

热带雨林

Extremely rapid rates of nutrient transfer, due to high temps, rainfall and humidity. Biomass is the largest store of nutrients due to the vast arrays of plants found in the TRF. Few nutrients are in the litter, due to their rapid decomposition as a result of high temperatures. Leaching is rapid and more so in areas of rainforest clearance.

由于高温、降雨和湿度,营养物质的转移速度极快。由于在TRF中发现了大量的植物,生物量是最大的营养物质储存。由于高温导致的快速分解,垃圾中的营养物质很少。沥滤是快速的,在雨林清除的地区更是如此。

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